Among the major problems that haunt the world regularly is water scarcity: the failure to obtain sufficient water to fulfill the needs of the residents of a region. This problem affects all the continents and approximately 2.8 billion across the globe. Close to 1.2 billion people lack the access to clean water. Water scarcity is a combination of several severe problems which includes: water shortage, water crisis, unavailability of clean water and water stress (lack of fresh water sources in a region over a period of time).
Waterborne diseases which originate due to drinking contaminated water are vast in number and include: cholera, amoebiasis, Diarrhea, Hepatitis A, lead poisoning etc. Contaminated water gives breeding ground to mosquitoes eventually leading to diseases such as malaria. In some severe the inability to gain access to pure drinking water causes typhoid, polio, arsenicosis and fluorosis. Although all the above mentioned diseases have their own symptoms the common factor is that they are all derived from drinking contaminated water and have drastic effects on the human body. The disturbing fact is that water scarcity is responsible for approximately 3.5 million deaths per year and is ranked as the leading cause of death for children under the age of 5.
If the crisis continues as it is experts predict that by 2020 between 30-40% of the world would have fallen prey to water scarcity, this means that in the next two years close to 600 million more people are expected to have inadequate access to clean water. With the ever growing population this crisis is unlikely to be resolved in the near future. A study conducted by the United Nations suggests that by 2025 another 30 nations will become scarce. Experts suggest that the Middle East is where this problem is expected to next hit.
Although the leaders of the world are focused on producing pure water and supplying it to mainly developing nations as that is where the problem is at its peak, it is our duty to follow certain steps in our daily life to preserve clean water. These preservation methods are not out of our reach rather in fact something we should be following in our day to day lives which we tend to ignore such as turning the water tap off when not in use (tooth brushing), not leaving the shower water on for more than what is required, not wasting drinking water or reusing it later rather than throwing it away. On average one house is wastes approximately 10,000 gallons of water each year, simple precaution and vigilance can change that.